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30.08.2009 13:32 - Eндемизмът на Евбея
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PANAYIOTIS TRIGAS & GREGORIS IATROU
The local endemic flora of Evvia (W Aegean, Greece)
Abstract
Trigas, P.&Iatrou, G.: The local endemic flora of Evvia (W Aegean, Greece). – Willdenowia 36 (Special
Issue): 257-270. – ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.
doi:10.3372/wi.36.36121 (available via http://dx.doi.org/)
The local endemic element in the flora of theWAegean island of Evvia comprises 39 taxa (2.1 %of an
estimated total of 1833 taxa). The three centres of endemism on the island are the ophiolitic areas of N
Evvia,Mt Dirphis in central Evvia and Mt Ochi and the Cape Kafireas area in S Evvia. The majority of
the endemic taxa inhabit limestone and ophiolitic habitats. Schizoendemics (80.8 %) form the largest
category, followed by apoendemics (11.5 %) and palaeoendemics (7.7 %). Taxonomical comments on
selected taxa are provided. The chromosome number of ten taxa is given for the first time.
Key words: island biogeography, taxonomy, vascular plants, serpentine, chromosome numbers.
Introduction
The Aegean area is an important centre of Mediterranean plant endemism, floristically pioneered
by Rechinger (1943, 1944, 1949). In the W Aegean, the flora of the island of Evvia was studied in
detail (Rechinger 1961, partly based on Phitos 1960). Much floristic and biosystematic work has
subsequently been carried out in Evvia and adjacent regions (e.g. Kьnkele & Paysan 1981,
Akeroyd & Preston 1987, Boratyoski & al. 1988, Trigas & Iatrou 2000) and many taxa have been described
from the island in the last decades (Phitos 1964, 1965, 1981, Ehrendorfer & Schцnbeck-
Temesy 1975, Georgiadis 1980, Phitos & Georgiadis 1981, Phitos & Tzanoudakis 1981, Papanikolaou
& Kokkini 1982, Tiniakou 1991, Brullo & al. 1997, 2003, Trigas & Tzanoudakis 2000, Trigas
& Iatrou 2003, 2005). Endemism in the local flora was analysed by the first author only recently
(Trigas 2003). Actually, 1833 taxa (species and subspecies) are known to occur in Evvia. The
Greek endemic element includes 178 taxa (9.7 %). Of these, 39 taxa (2.1 % of the total flora) are
island endemics of Evvia, discussed in the present paper as to their taxonomy, estimated origin and
evolution. For topographical, geological, climatic and edaphic properties of the investigated area
(Fig. 1) the reader is referred to Rechinger (1961), Trigas & Iatrou (2000) and Trigas (2003), for
paleogeography in particular to Creutzburg (1966), Greuter (1970), Dermitzakis (1990) and Andel
& Tzedakis (1996).
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 257
Material and methods
This paper is based on field studies carried out from 1995 to 2003, studies of herbarium specimens
(ATH, C, UPA, W), and evaluation of the literature. The collection of plant material and field observations
were made in different seasons of the year to fully cover different altitudinal belts and
representative types of habitats. Nomenclature follows Tutin & al. (1968-80, 1993), Greuter & al.
(1984-89), Strid (1986) and Strid & Tan (1991, 1997, 2002). The classification by cytotaxonomic
criteria of the local endemic taxa of Evvia follows Favarger & Contandriopoulos (1961). The
karyological studies are based on material collected in nature and cultivated in pots outdoors in the
experimental botanical garden of the University of Patras (for laboratory methods applied, see
Trigas & Iatrou 2005).
Results and discussion
The endemic flora of Evvia consists of 39 taxa (32 species and 7 subspecies; Table 1) in 14 families
and 23 genera. Highly diverse genera with many endemics in the Greek flora (e.g., Allium,
Centaurea, Silene, Verbascum, Viola) are also represented in the endemic flora of Evvia. The
chromosome number is known for 27 taxa but not yet studied in the remaining 11 taxa. Of the endemic
taxa of Evvia 20 are chamaephytes, 12 hemicryptophytes, 5 geophytes (Allium spp., Geocaryum
euboeum), 1 therophyte (Ammi topalii), and 1 phanerophyte (Quercus trojana subsp.
euboica). When referring to age of taxa and times of speciation processes, either taken from liter-
258 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia
Fig.1. Topographic map of Evvia with the northern (EN), central (EC) and southern (ES) divisions according
to Rechinger (1961).
ature or derived from own observations, the present authors are aware of the fact that conclusive
evaluations may point towards plausibilities rather than proved evidence.
1. Geographical distribution of the endemics
The local endemic taxa of Evvia are not evenly distributed. The highest concentration is observed
in central Evvia (21 taxa), followed by N Evvia (18 taxa) and S Evvia (9 taxa). Three centers of
endemism can be observed:
a) The ophiolitic regions of N Evvia with 12 local endemics; eight exclusively on serpentine
and four on both serpentine and limestone at low altitudes, plus six on limestone or on calcareous
quaternary sediments at higher altitudes of Mt Kandili and its surroundings.
b) Mt Dirphis and the nearby mountainous areas of central Evvia whith 18 local endemics;
ten at medium and higher altitudes, five (Allium dirphianum, Asperula suffruticosa, Cruciata
taurica subsp. euboea, Minuartia dirphya, Silene dirphya) restricted to the highest peak (Delphi)
of Mt Dirphis, plus three (Allium calamarophilon, Campanula cymaea, Ammi topalii) at low altitudes
and along the coast.
c) Mt Ochi (five taxa at medium and high altitudes) and Cape Kafireas in S Evvia (four taxa
at low altitude, partly coastal).
Most (i.e. 30) of the insular endemics of Evvia occur in only one of the three geographical divisions
of the island (Fig. 1). Twelve taxa are confined to N Evvia, twelve to central Evvia and
six to S Evvia. The distribution of these taxa is limited to very small areas on the mountains or in
the lowland. The remaining nine endemics are distributed in two of the three geographical divisions,
none expanding from N through S Evvia.
As many as 26 of the insular endemics of Evvia are lowland taxa occuring below 1000 m,
eight taxa grow only above 1000 m and 5 taxa are distributed over both altitudinal ranges. A similar
altitudinal distribution pattern has been observed in the endemic flora of Peloponnisos
(Iatrou 1986, Tan & Iatrou 2001).
2. Edaphic endemism – distribution according to substrate
The strong link of taxa to a specific geological substrate is one of the most important characteristics
of the endemic flora of Evvia. The majority of the local endemic taxa (17 taxa or 43.6 %) are
exclusively distributed on limestone, viz. Allium dirphianum, A. calamarophilon, Asperula
euboea, A. suffruticosa, Campanula constantini, C. cymaea, Chaerophyllum euboeum, Cruciata
taurica subsp. euboea, Geocaryum euboeum, Hypericum fragile, Linum goulimyi, Nepeta argolica
subsp. dirphya, Senecio eubaeus, Silene dirphya, Verbascum euboicum, Verbascum zuccarinii,
Viola dirphya. Nine local endemics (23.1%) grow exclusively on ultramafic rock (serpentine),
viz. Alyssum euboeum, Asperula ophiolithica, Centaurea ebenoides, C. euboica subsp. euboica,
C. euboica subsp. intermedia, C. mantoudii, Minuartia dirphya, Quercus trojana subsp.
euboica, Silene oligantha subsp. pseudoradicosa. Four local endemics grow equally well on serpentine
and limestone (Alyssum densistellatum, Bolanthus intermedius, Campanula goulimyi,
Scutellaria goulimyi), another four occur exclusively on schist in S Evvia (Allium karistanum, A.
runemarkii, Armeria johnsenii, Campanula celsii subsp. carystea). Sideritis euboea and Viola
euboea grow on both limestone and schist. Inula subfloccosa is confined to cipolin and marbles,
whereas Asperula brachyphylla grows on both schist and cipolin. Finally one species, Ammi
topalii, inhabits coastal sands.
The influence of serpentines in speciation processes in plants is well known (Kruckeberg
1951, 1954, 1967, Proctor & Woodell 1975). The serpentines of Evvia, concentrated in the north
while being only scattered in the central and southern divisions, are of special interest in terms of
phytogeography, in particular with respect to their position at the southeastern periphery of the
whole system of serpentine areas in the Balkans, and their insular isolation. The serpentine areas
of the Balkan Peninsula represent an ancient core of speciation and act likewise as an important
refugial habitat for relict elements. Numerous relict and endemic taxa on various taxonomic levels,
predominantly or facultatively found on serpentine, support this view (Stevanovi6 & al.
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 259
2003). Of the local serpentine endemics of Evvia, four taxa belong to the genus Centaurea and
two to Alyssum. Both genera are among the richest in obligate serpentine endemics in the Balkan
Peninsula (Stevanovi6 & al. 2003). The endemism related to ultramafic substrate on Evvia exhibits
a mixture of evolutionary recent and older taxa which can be grouped into certain categories
with respect to their origin (see also Table 2).
The first category includes endemics the taxonomic relatives of which are distributed in adjacent
non-ophiolitic (usually calcareous) areas (Centaurea euboica, C. mantoudii, Quercus
trojana subsp. euboica, Silene oligantha subsp. pseudoradicosa). Alyssum densistellatum,
Bolanthus intermedius and Scutellaria goulimyi which grow on both ophiolite and limestone also
belong here. This category is considered to include neoendemics and may represent the result of
adaptation of older populations to the special ecological conditions of the ophiolitic substrate.
Their differentiation probably took place in recent geological eras or may still be in progress.
The second category includes serpentine taxa the relatives of which are distributed quite far
away, mostly in northern regions. Centaurea ebenoides and Campanula goulimyi belong here,
the latter growing on both ophiolitic and calcareous substrates. These taxa seem to have reached
Evvia from the north, probably during colder periods.
The third category includes taxa that are taxonomically isolated, or their relatives geographically
disjunct, such as Alyssum euboeum, Asperula ophiolithica and Minuartia dirphya. Given
the palaeogeography of the region, they seem to have evolved in the distant past, at least during
Pliocene. The ophiolitic areas of Evvia, apart from contributing to the evolution of new taxa,
260 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia
Table 1. The endemic vascular plant taxa of Evvia, with geographical distribution in the three geographical
divisions of Evvia as defined in Fig. 1, altitudinal range, substrate preference and chromosome number. Previously
unpublished chromosome numbers are marked with an asterisk.
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 261
Table 2. Classification of the local endemic taxa of Evvia into categories using cytotaxonomic criteria, including
corresponding relatives with their distribution ranges. S = schizoendemic, P = palaeoendemic, A =
apoendemic; after Favarger & Contandriopoulos (1961).
may have permitted the conservation and survival of some relicts, which have become extinct in
adjacent, non-ophiolitic regions.
The serpentinophytes of Evvia show intense phytogeographical connections with the neighbouring
ophiolitic regions of adjacent continental Greece. Several serpentine endemics are distributed
to the serpentine areas of northern Evvia, eastern Sterea Ellas and/or eastern Central
Greece (e.g. Allium euboicum, Daphne euboica, Ferulago serpentinica, Onosma euboica, Scorzonera
serpentinica). The phytogeographical connection with the extensive ophiolitic regions of
N Greece is evidently weaker.
Besides ophiolitic substrate the presence of marble and cipolin strips within the extensive
schist areas of S Evvia is as well a case of ecological isolation concerning Inula subfloccosa and
Stachys euboica (the latter, considered endemic to S Evvia, has recently been discovered in the
Meteora area of Thessaly, according to Kamari & al. 2003).
3. Classification of the endemics after cytotaxonomic critera
Favarger & Contandriopoulos (1961) systematized the cytotaxonomic study of endemic taxa and
their vicarious congeners in order to better understand their evolutionary history and distinguish
“passive” endemism of palaeo- and patroendemics from ”active” endemism of schizo- and
apoendemics. Our karyological data allow such a classification for 27 of the 39 local endemic
taxa of Evvia (Table 2). The majority represents schizoendemics (80.8 %) while the categories of
apoendemics (11.5 %) and palaeoendemics 7.7 %) follow by distance (patroendemics absent).
The dominance of schizoendemics and apoendemics in the endemic flora of Evvia shows that
endemism has originated in Evvia mainly in an “active” way. The cytotaxonomic classification of
the endemic plants of Peloponnisos (Iatrou 1986) gained similar results (palaeoendemics 7.8 %,
patroendemics 0.0 %, schizoendemics 86.3 %, apoendemics 5.9 %).
In Evvia, the category of palaeoendemics is represented by Alyssum euboeum and Verbascum
zuccarinii. As compared to other Aegean areas rich in palaeoendemics (e.g. the S Aegean area;
Greuter 1972, 1975), this is only a very small number, possibly caused by the relatively recent
isolation of Evvia from continental Greece, and the immigration and successful competition of
northern taxa during the glacial periods. Palaeooendemics are ancient taxa showing little variation
and a distribution often of a relictual type, corresponding to the remains of a once larger area
(Cardona & Contandriopoulos 1979). V. zuccarinii belongs to this category as its population
presents low morphological diversity and is taxonomically isolated, without close relatives in the
Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia, its closest relative being V. pyramidatum M.Bieb. from the Caucasus.
A. euboeum is a possibly palaeoendemic species well adapted to the harsh environmental
conditions of the ophiolitic rocks and is locally common, although scattered and restricted in distribution.
Its morphological variability is remarkable and seems to depend, to some extent, on
different composition of the ophiolitic rocks it colonizes. It has no close relatives in Alyssum
sect. Odontarrhena (C. A. Mey.) W. D. J. Koch in the Balkans, and an Anatolian origin seems
more probable for this species, supported by morphological similarities with A. condensatum
Boiss. & Hausskn. s.l. from Anatolia, Syria, Lebanon and N Iraq.
Patroendemics constitute, together with palaeoendemics, the ancient element of a flora. Despite
the existence of some patroendemics in the Aegean there is none among the local endemic
taxa of Evvia that can safely be classified as such using cytotaxonomic criteria. Patroendemics
were also not reported in the endemic flora of Peloponnisos (Iatrou 1986).
With 21 taxa, schizoendemics form the largest group in the endemic flora of Evvia. Some of
them are taxa of recent origin and their evolution is still in progress. Others, similarly to
palaeoendemics, have an old origin.
Allium karistanum and Minuartia dirphya are considered to be schizoendemic taxa of an old
origin (relictual schizoendemics), and probably Hypericum fragile, Sideritis euboea, Asperula
euboea and Centaurea ebenoides are also to be included in this category. Allium karistanum, together
with A. callidictyon, A. peroninianum, A. greuteri and A. pentadactyli, form a group of
species with a remarkable disjunction over the Mediterranean (see distribution map in Brullo &
262 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia
al.1997). Their ecological preferences and some of their morphological features indicate that
they are probably relics of a xerothermic flora linked with the Messinian period (5-6 m.y. B.P.)
when the Mediterranean climate was uniformly xeric and these geophytes probably had a wide
distribution (Brullo & al. 1997). The geographical distribution of Minuartia dirphya and its corresponding
species, M. wettsteinii and M. parnonia is less scattered (Trigas & Iatrou 2005). This
pattern indicates that the origin of these species goes back at least to Pliocene, characterising
them as palaeo-schizoendemics. Hypericum fragile belongs to Hypericum sect. Taeniocarpium
Jaub. & Spach which has a wide distribution range throughout Europe eastwards to Israel and E
Siberia. The representatives of this section in Greece, H. fragile and H. taygeteum, have very restricted
distribution ranges, indicating a relictual status. Sideritis euboea and S. raeseri, although
distributed in neighbouring areas (Fig. 2), show morphological differences that indicate long isolation.
S. syriaca subsp. syriaca, endemic to Crete, appears to be the closest relative of S. euboea
at least morphologically. The distribution ranges of both latter species also indicate an old origin.
The species related to Centaurea ebenoides (Table 2) are distributed in the central part of the
Balkan Peninsula, hence it has probably a northern origin. However, striking morphological differences
of C. ebenoides from its corresponding species indicate long isolation.
Schizoendemics the corresponding taxa of which are distributed in closely neighbouring areas
are supposed to have a relatively recent origin (neoschizoendemics). Their morphological differentiation
is usually weak and they are often classified at subspecific level. The majority of the
endemics of Evvia belong here (Allium calamarophilon, A. runemarkii, Armeria johnsenii, Campanula
celsii subsp. carystea, C. constantini, C. cymaea, C. goulimyi, Centaurea euboica, Inula
subfloccosa, Nepeta argolica subsp. dirphya, Scutellaria goulimyi, Senecio eubaeus, Silene
oligantha subsp. pseudoradicosa, Quercus trojana subsp. euboica and Silene dirphya). Their corresponding
taxa (Table 2) usually have restricted distribution ranges. The subspecific differentiation
of Centaurea euboica subsp. euboica and C. euboica subsp. intermedia, both growing on
serpentine in N Evvia, was presumably triggered by fragmentation of the ophiolitic areas of N
Evvia by intercalary calcareous rocks and by differences in their chemical composition.
The category of apoendemics includes Centaurea mantoudii, Viola dirphya and Viola euboea.
C. mantoudii is an auto- or allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36; Georgiadis 1980, Trigas 2003) and it
seems to originate from the diploid C. pelia (2n = 2x = 18) that spreads widely in areas adjacent to
the range of C. mantoudii. V. dirphya is also tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40; Tiniakou 1991), probably
originating from the widely distributed diploid V. reichenbachiana (2n = 2x = 20; Livaniou-Tiniakou
1991) via auto- or allopolyploidy. Both taxa can be considered neopolyploids, according to
Favarger (1975) and Greilhuber & Ehrendorfer (1988), with their relative diploid taxa distributed
in closely neighbouring areas. V. euboea is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40; Erben 1985), of an allopolyploid
origin (Erben 1996), and its ancestral taxa are very difficult to identify within the extremely
difficult complex of Viola sect. Melanium. It seems to be a mesopolyploid according to Favarger
(1975; see also Table 2).
4. Origin and geographic affinities of the endemic flora of Evvia
The allocation of the regional endemics of Evvia to the present distribution ranges of their related
taxa may elucidate their origin and geographic affinities, grouped into different categories.
The first, and largest, category includes taxa that seem to have developed in either continental or
insular (Aegean) Greece. The “continental” group includes Allium calamarophilon, A. runemarkii,
Asperula euboea, Bolanthus intermedius, Campanula celsii subsp. carystea, Centaurea ebenoides,
C. euboica, C. mantoudii, Geocaryum euboicum, Hypericum fragile, Inula subfloccosa, Nepeta
argolica subsp. dirphya, Senecio eubaeus, Silene oligantha subsp. pseudoradicosa, Viola euboea
and Verbascum euboicum, the “insular” group contains Asperula suffruticosa, Campanula cymaea,
C. constantini and C. goulimyi.
The second category includes endemic taxa that seem to originate from widely distributed
taxa, some populations of which underwent speciation in Evvia. Alyssum densistellatum, Ammi
topalii, Armeria johnsenii, Chaerophyllum euboeum, Quercus trojana subsp. euboica, Scutellaria
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 263
264 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia
Fig. 2. A: Total range of Sideritis euboea, S. raeseri subsp. florida, S. raeseri subsp. attica, S. syriaca subsp.
syriaca and distribution range of S. raeseri subsp. raeseri in Greece; B: total range of Asperula euboea, A.
lutea and A. mungieri.
goulimyi, Silene dirphya and Viola dirphya belong here. In some cases (Fig. 3) the widely distributed
related taxa expand to the north of Evvia. In all cases the endemic taxa show strong morphological
similarities to their relatives and they should be considered of a relatively recent
origin.
The third category includes taxa which originate E of Evvia, viz. in Anatolia or even further
east, including Asperula brachyphylla, A. ophiolithica, Cruciata taurica subsp. euboea and probably
Alyssum euboeum. These are old taxa usually well differentiated from their relatives, which
seem to have arrived in Evvia via the central Aegean. The distribution of A. brachyphylla and its
congeners is the only clear evidence for this migration route (see distribution map in Trigas &
Iatrou 2003).
In the S Aegean area, especially in Crete, many eastern species are confined to high altitudes
(Carlstrцm 1987), reflecting the climatic conditions of the migration periods. Two insular
endemics of Evvia of an eastern origin (Asperula brachyphylla, Cruciata taurica subsp. euboea)
are confined to high altitudes, whereas Asperula ophiolithica and Alyssum euboeum (exclusively
on serpentine in N Evvia) are lowland species the relatives of which are usually growing on limestone
at moderate and high altitudes (up to 3000 m) in Anatolia. According to Brooks (1987), the
serpentines of Evvia, found mostly at low altitude, support a flora that includes plants distributed,
outside Evvia, further north or at higher altitudes. This disjunct distribution is a typical
character of serpentine floras elsewhere, where competitive pressure restricts some plants either
to the edaphically harsh environment of ultramafites, or to the climatically harsh environment of
regions further north or at higher altitudes.
Finally, a fourth category is represented by Allium karistanum which, with its relative taxa,
seem to constitute remnants of an old xerophytic flora widely distributed in the Mediterranean
area during the Messinian.
5. Comments on selected taxa
Asperula euboea (Ehrend.) Trigas
The Asperula populations that grow on cliffs in central Evvia were originally described as a subspecies
of A. lutea (A. lutea subsp. euboea Ehrend. in Rechinger 1961). Ehrendorfer & Krendl
(1976) divided A. lutea into four subspecies distributed in S Greece, viz. A. lutea subsp. lutea
(Sterea Ellas and N Peloponnisos), A. lutea subsp. euboea (endemic to central Evvia), A. lutea
subsp. rigidula (E Sterea Ellas, Evvia, Peloponnisos) and A. lutea subsp. mungieri (endemic to
Mts Taigetos and Parnon in S Peloponnisos), both the latter later recognized as independent species
(Schцnbeck-Temesy & Ehrendorfer 1991, Tan & Iatrou 2001). The Asperula populations of
Central Evvia, too, belong to a clearly distinct species, A. euboea (Ehrend.) Trigas (Trigas 2003),
which grows in a specialized habitat (i.e. shady vertical limestone cliffs) and differs from its relative
taxa in habit and in several morphological characters. It seems to be more closely related to A.
mungieri Boiss. & Heldr. than to A. lutea Sm. s. str., differing from the former by its dense
caespitose habit, shorter stems, longer hyaline apex of leaves and dull yellow corolla (whitish,
purple or brownish-purple in A. mungieri), and from the latter by its dense caespitose habit, longer,
acicular, ± falcate leaves and a shorter inflorescence.
Fumana pinatzii Rech. f.
Fumana pinatzii was described from Evvia (Rechinger 1956); according to the description, it does
not show remarkable taxonomic differences in single characters from F. arabica (L.) Spach, a
widespread species of the Mediterranean region, except the number of seeds in the capsule (6 instead
of 12 in F. arabica).
In the locus classicus of Fumana pinatzii (the Limni area in N Evvia), we collected many
specimens of the local Fumana populations growing abundantly in the ophiolitic areas. The study
of these specimens, and their comparison with the type specimen, confirmed the absence of morphological
differences between F. pinatzii and F. arabica from various places in Greece. The
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 265
266 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia
Fig. 3. A: Total range of Quercus trojana subsp. euboica, and distribution range of Q. trojana subsp. trojana in
Greece; B: total range of Silene dirphya and distribution range of S. saxifraga in Greece.
specimens from N Evvia were found to contain 6, 9 or 12 seeds per capsule. No morphological
differences linked with different number of seeds per capsule were found. According to Heywood
(1968), specimens of F. arabica from the Kiklades islands have sometimes 6 seeds per capsule,
while the number of seeds in F. arabica is (6-)8-12. The inclusion of F. pinatzii within the variation
and as a synonym of F. arabica is therefore appropriate.
Colchicum pinatziorum Rech. f.
The description of Colchicum pinatziorum (Rechinger 1961) was based on a specimen of Pinatzis
collected on Mt Kandili in N Evvia, at an altitude of c. 1000 m. The species, according to the description
and the type specimen seen, shows only slight taxonomic differences from C. boissieri
Orph. which is distributed in Sterea Ellas, the island of Chios and W Anatolia (Tan & Iatrou 2001).
The differences of Pinatzis’s specimen from specimens of C. boissieri collected in Sterea Ellas are
confined to the slightly more slender perianth segments and the smaller anthers (c. 2 mm long).
During a visit to Mt Kandili we found large populations of Colchicum growing in Abies
cephalonica woodland at altitudes of 850 to 1050 m. The study of the specimens revealed a considerable
variation in the size of the perianth segments (4-12 mm wide) and anthers (2.2-3.6 mm
long). These measurements fit well (or only slightly extend beyond) the dimensions given for C.
boissieri. We did not find any other morphological difference between the specimens of Mt
Kandili and genuine C. boissieri. This is true also for the leaves, which originally were not described
in C. pinatziorum. We therefore propose to sink C. pinatziorum into synonymy of the
more widespread C. boissieri.
Crepis dioscoridis subsp. euboica Rech. f.
Crepis dioscoridis s.l. is a very polymorphic species distributed in SE Europe. Subspecies were described
by Babcock (1947), but these were based on very limited material, and further information
is required before their status can be confirmed (Sell 1976).
Crepis dioscoridis subsp. euboica was described by Rechinger (1961) from central Evvia and
related by him to C. dioscoridis subsp. tubiformis (Halбcsy) Babc. Specimens of C. dioscoridis
s.l. collected by us in central Evvia do not show stable differences with specimens of C.
dioscoridis s.l. collected in E Sterea Ellas. Size of leaves and length of stems clearly correspond
with modifying ecological parameters of the habitat. Subspecific rank for the populations of C.
dioscoridis from Evvia is therefore not justified.
Concluding remarks
Restricted distribution ranges, and the strong link to specific geological substrates are important
characteristics of the endemic flora of Evvia. The abundance of schizoendemics and the presence
of apoendemics emphasize the “active” evolution of endemic taxa on the island. The majority of
the endemics belong to groups that seem to have differentiated in situ. Northern and eastern elements,
although low in number, have further enriched the local endemic flora.
Endemics form a significant group of taxa for setting conservation priorities. The insular
endemics of Evvia, many of them with extremely narrow distribution ranges, are subject to a
number of serious threats. Almost 50 % of them are considered facing a high risk of extinction in
the wild and therefore fulfill the criteria of inclusion in the categories of “Critically Endangered”,
“Endangered” or “Vulnerable”, according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria
(IUCN 2001, Trigas 2003). Their conservation should be of priority in any future environmental
plans in the area.
Acknowledgement
The authors thank Dr Theophanis Constantinidis for his critical comments on the paper.
Willdenowia 36 – 2006 267
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Addresses of the authors:
Panayiotis Trigas, National Agricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), Forest Research
Institute, Terma Alkmanos str., 11528 Ilisia, Athens, Greece; e-mail: trigas@fria.gr
Gregoris Iatrou, Department of Biology, Division of Plant Biology, University of Patras, 26500
Patras, Greece; e-mail: iatrou@upatras.gr
270 Trigas & Iatrou: The local endemic flora of Evvia



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